Full Text Article

Restoration of Obliterated Serial Number on Keys with the Help of Various Chemical Etching Method: A Review Study

Received Date: April 16, 2022 Accepted Date: April 22, 2022 Published Date: April 24, 2022

doi: 10.17303/jfrcs.2022.7.103

Citation: Vaishali Gaud and Kajol Bhati (2022) Restoration of Obliterated Serial Number on Keys with the Help of Various Chemical Etching Method: A Review Study. J Forensic Res Crime Stud 7: 1-10

The Serial numbers that are utilized as the novel identification-based marks for a scope of that things, however, that can be eradicated by way of guilty parties associated with crimes like robbery or unlawful utilization of taken things, so that the beginning and possession can’t be followed. These days’ numerous techniques are accessible to re-establish the deleted serial number. For restoring the obliterated serial numbers on a metallic surface, the most well-known and fruitful technique is chemical etching. In the field of public security, this method is generally employed for restoring demolished engraved marks on steel surfaces such as serial numbers of keys, number plates of cars, serial numbers of arms etc. The thickness of the steel surface which is able devoured amid the method of recovery exists and it considered such as a critical run the show for surveying the viability of the chemical carving reagent. The less is the thickness of metal devoured, the higher is the recovery adequacy. As indicated by chemical standards, the thickness of the consumed steel can be reduced effectively by keeping up with the nonstop oxidative abilities of etching reagents and expanding the kinetic rate difference of the reaction between the engraved and non-engraved region with the chemical etching reagent. This review paper identifies various chemical etching reagents that are currently in use for the restoration of obliterated serial numbers on the metal surfaces and also propose possible reagents for further research which can be used in chemical etching technique which is important from both perspectives forensic marks examination as well as a criminal investigation.

Keywords:Serial Number Restoration, Obliterated Engraved Marks, Chemical Etching, Metal Plate

Serial numbers are unique numbers on metal and other surfaces that are used to identify various consumer and commercial objects such as weapons, electronic hardware, ranch gear, contemporary hardware, trucks, cruisers, adornments, and other motor vehicles. They provide a method for law enforcement offices to retain the first and enlisted owner. As a result, crimes such as burglary or unauthorized use of these items may render information unintelligible, making possession impossible to trace. Forensic Experts employ a variety of techniques to re-establish damaged marks. The process of re-establishing engraved identifying numbers is a vital scientific rule that connects technology and material growth. It covers topics in chemical science, engineering, and solid-state physics. Identification codes, symbol codes are examples of markings that may be used to perceive and designate various objects in business.

The re-establishment of erased marks of the genuine the “VIN” is a highly important method in the investigation of wheel burglary, fraud, and pirate incidents... Amongst the several ways used to re-establish the destroyed demolished impressions, substance scratching is the most commonly used [1-3].

As a result, it is critical on the way to the realm of the public level of security to create excellent engraved organic agents. When the re-established impression fulfills the minor prerequisite of affirmation by exposed eyes and visual information, the exhausted consistency of the metal surface amid the recovery prepare changes into a key show for analyzing the efficiency of the etching chemical specialist. The greater the rebuilding output, the thinner the burned-through consistency [5,4].

Especially when the erased impressions are densely packed. The foundation to effective signs is the physical consistency of the metal and other surfaces. It is also experimental to shorten the time necessary for the repair. The redox interaction between the synthetic etchants, metal, and other surfaces completely restores the obliterated markings or serial numbers. As a general rule, the recovery of the initial identification amounts of weapons that have got partially or wiped off to avoid their identification. Culprit's expectation is likely at avoiding any relationship between the holder and the robbed weapon. As the name of the brand and the product may be defined by the real qualities, the collection of experiences and the chain of rights are easily recognizable by the identification based number [6].

Grinding is commonly used in serial number obliteration: they begin to reveal the marks until they are no longer visible to the human eye [7]. The unique identifying numbers have been lost, however, they can be restored using the synthetic engraving process [1,8-10].

In the scientific sector, both ruinous and non-ruinous repair procedures are used efficiently. Synthetic engraving is the most sensitive of these processes for re-establishing deleted identifying numbers on steel and other surfaces. It is worth noting that good restoration is inextricably linked to reagents, their application on the surface level, and the chemical structure of the metal [11].

It should be noted that re-establishment procedures might be efficiently used if, following culprit annihilation, silvery surfaces exhibit plastic bending due to the development of originating signals [2,6,12-17].

If criminal obliteration has ground the outside somewhat, leaving a little bit of the genuine digit, the cavity might be filled with scraped material. As the result of cleaned surfaces generally allow the authentic digit to be obliterated [14].

In rare cases, the etched imprints are completely invisible to the naked eye. However, if the ductile misshaping part is still there, the re-establishment can be effectively completed. Moreover, if the deterioration continues a lot of farther and the ductile deformity region is removed, no re-establishment is possible. Even though the discovery of the chemical agent and the actual synthetic engraving restitution are undeniably vulnerable on the metal and various surfaces of the compound, explicit examinations on synthetic engraving recovery procedure applicable on moderate composite prepares have not been widely researched up to this point [13-15].

Every one of the alphanumeric groups on the test’s surfaces was removed at specified depths under the engraving’s bottom. The cleaning approach was used to conduct the recovery tests.

The re-establishment of identifying digits necessitates the use of both hypothetical and realistic data. Excellent experimental and close-up capture abilities are also required for the translation of the illegible erased identifying digits. The imprints assessment professionals use several electrochemical, physical, and magical molecular recovery procedures during the re-observation. The recovery method is determined by the procedures used to destroy or modify the serial number, the synthetic structure of the material, and the status of the exterior. The surface of the material may be devoured, even whether it has steel, polymer, glossy, or composite properties. The simultaneous use of several engraving methods and complicated or weakened surface structures may prevent re-establishment. Many experts believe that when the catastrophe mistreats the ductile misshaping location, it will be challenging to offer the digits visible [20].

An etchant is a kind of compound that can have the capacity to produce an activity of consumption on the metal. Etching is the cycle identified with material that is being taken out or erased from a material's surface. In criminology, it is by and large the cycle that is utilized as strong acid to slash the layer of a metal surface recover eradicated numbers examines from the external layer of any substances. The two major types of etching processes are such that way. Wet Etching is the most common way of Restoration that includes utilizing liquid synthetic substances or etchants this interaction is called wet drawing. Dry Etching is the course of etching called the plasma etching cycle, or we can say thirsty engraving, engrave the gases which are used for takeoff the compound.

Fry’s Reagents on Different Surfaces

Kesharwani L. et al discovered in their study Developed a new chemical agent for re-establishment of engraved identification numbers on steel plates that 10 engraving chemical agents of varying compositions (25 g, ferric chloride, concentrate , distilled water; HCl 25 ml nitric acid 25%) were used to reestablish identification number on the samples (iron metal keys having chronic number sample 1 – 7861, Sample 2 – 7864, (etching reagent 3) (composition (a) FeCl3 6% compound in H2O, (b) HNO3 25% compound in H2O) and 10 (formation CuSO4 5 g, NH4OH 30 ml, concentrate HCl 144 ml, and pure water 80 ml: produce truly better results (incomplete restoration happen) and the other seven engraving chemicals 1-9 did not create superior distinction or have any impact on the eradicated zone, and they were respected as deficiently within the reclamation. In the preceding experiments, it was discovered that engraving chemical agent 4 produces the greatest results. By comparing imprints restored by standard reagent to marks restored by engraving chemical agent 4, it was determined that the time of number re-establishment is not precisely the hour of recovery of imprints re-established by common chemical agent and it was also strong [22].

Song, et al in their study on the restoration of obliterated erased signs on steel surfaces using chemical etching reagents, and the exhibition analysis of three distinct chemical agents, created from nitric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and C3H6O, produced the best results. This chemical operator not as it were recuperating devastated signs in a shorter time and devours less metal surface, but it moreover produces comes about without cleaning, making it a basic and viable re-establishment approach. Since HF is destructive and caustic, the method ought to be carried out in an oxygenation defender with satisfactory person defensive hardware such as covered glass and gauntlet. They acknowledged that in future tests, they would look at additional factors that may interfere with the re-establishment of interpretation, such as temperature and the attentiveness of various chemicals in the engraving chemical agent [23].

Fortini A., et al in their experimentation on Rehabilitation of eradicated identification Numbers on 40NiCrMo4 Steel by synthetic engraving method: Statistical and Metallurgical Approach found this review has examined the re-establishment of stapped imprints on 40NiCrMo4 low alloy carbon metal by synthetic engraving technique after disciplined deportation of substance from the exterior. As per the finding of the experiments, the succeeding opinions can be drawn: synthetic agent 2 (25 mL HNO3 (concentrate), 75 mL H2O) was the best as it recovered the best digits of signs, which were particular and with a dominant extremely good contrast. Additionally, reagent 1 was viewed as the most delicate, as it had the option to recover imprint to the most extreme intensity of obliteration. Cleaning got through acetone+ in addition to fine grade P1200 and paste of diamond worked on the NRC/NEC correlation and if superior differentiation among the re-established digits and the exterior. The rate of the thickness of the observer’s judgments after expulsion illustrates that there are no vital data defilements almost seeing sexuality and age bunches for the two women and guys chosen as eyewitnesses. McNemar and chi-squared crucial measurements set up the tolerability and adequacy of acidulous etching on engraves re-establishment ventured on 40NiCrMo4 metal. This preparatory examination demonstrated that chemical specialist 1 (90 g CuCl2, HCl 120 mL (concentrate), H2O 100 mL) and reagent 2 (25 mL HNO3 (concentrated), 75 mL H2O) accomplished alluring comes about on the reclamation of ventured recognizing digits on 40NiCrMo4 metal. Extra testing of the viability of these engineered compounds ought to be carried out to guarantee the reproducibility of the comes about [24]. Mohd. Aris, et al found that a arrangement of test work was coordinated to investigate the reasonability of etching reagents and significance of distorted plastic with which the crushed marks can be reestablished on Aluminum- silicon- copper compound surfaces in their investigate on re-establishment of killed markings on Motor Square made of Aluminum by Chemical Strategies. The profundity of engraves was measured for all plates and found to be 0.05 mm. Five distinctive reagents were attempted on four distinctive gauges that were carved up to 0.05 mm, 0.03 mm, 0.01 mm, and 0.8 mm underneath the significance of carving Aluminum-Silicon-Copper amalgam plates.

0. 2 Etching could be a controlled disintegration handle that happens as a result of electrolytic activity between surface regions of shifting potential. The reagent does not reliably act on particular appearances of the precious stone or grain crevices. As the problem of the ruined metal worsens, the frosty exertion location is recognized to be artificially more delicate. As a result, they will disintegrate faster in the etchant than in the unaffected zone (areas not affected by carving). The desirable outcome is a shift in light reflectance that reveals the destroyed markings. As a result, the rebuilding technique is based on the difference between the distorted and unreformed regions to create the optimal picture contrast [5,25].

Uli Norjaidi, et al. discovered in their study on A review of a few metallographic synthetic carving reagents for the revamping of engraved markings on silicon and aluminum compound surfaces that the conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental results utilizing some metallographic reagents for scratching Silicon-Aluminum projecting combination surfaces. The deformity of the plastic introduced into the composite by the initial scratching might be shown by using a mixture of 10% NaOH and 10% HNO3. This approach was designed to be the most helpful, as it provided the option of displaying the metallic disruptive impact, which is, unlike stepping, quite insignificant if of drawing. The reagent’s differentiation was beyond exceptional. The significance of devastation was vital to the awesome recuperation. Given that the impressions were expelled past 0.02 mm beneath the foot zone of the carving, recovery was improbable/weak. This finding coincided with past investigations facilitated on Devastated engraves. [2,26-28].

The application of the reagent was basic, as drawing past a basic period of 15 minutes brought about within the vanishing of the impressions. The carved engraves showed up from time to time and after that vanished. Regardless, the recovered markings persisted once optimum cutting circumstances were established and could be photographed. The profundity of damage was required for the recovery of the impressions carved by punching in the center. The recovery was just inadequate when the relevance of center punching was more than that of scratching. It was necessary to have a thorough understanding of the reestablished markings from the reestablished traces. Since the course of action of the composite impacts the scratching for unveiling the harmed extraordinary number, a cautious assessment of the metallic show is required some time recently endeavoring the drawing procedure. It can be appeared that a few scratching reagents and strategies are to be connected for triumphs whereas moving aluminum amalgam within the arrange. A single reagent cannot be utilized on all aluminum surfaces [1,40].

In their ponder Uncovering annihilated engraved marks on tall quality aluminum combination (AA7010) surfaces by an carving procedure, Uei et al found that 1 to 10 percent aq. “Phosphoric acid” by submersion and 60 percent “HCl” and 40 percent “NaOH” on substitute swabbing on the destroyed zones of the combination AA7010 had the choice to effectively reestablish the engraved marks. Despite the long immersion duration, the 10 percent aq. “H3PO4” approach appears to provide superior distinction and affectability. It is advised that while employing this reagent, the engraved surface be immersed to some extent for one hour, and then a closer watch is kept from that point; in any event, the markings vanished when the submersion was drawn out. This reagent, which was originally indicated for aluminum and magnesium compounds [29], also performed brilliantly in our tests for “Al–Zn–Mg–Cu” compounds. The reagent is well known for aluminum compounds counting magnesium since it gives a great in any case, carving on “Mg5Al8” [28]. In any case, this reagent was considered unseemly and incapable for carving unadulterated metal surfaces. Sodium hydroxide could be a common reagent utilized for carving aluminum, and a wide extend of focuses and carving temperatures are reported within the writing. [28,30-33].

Be that as it may, this reagent delivered amazing comes about as it were up to a certain sum of pulverization. When the Destroyed significance was higher, this reagent did not respond favorably. Essentially, exchanging 60% hydrogen chloride for 40% sodium hydroxide resulted in a more noticeable distinction and affectability with our high aluminum admixture surfaces. Peeler, G., et al [34], discovered that this application produced excellent results for both aluminum-silicon and aluminum and magnesium alloys of engine cycle designs. Their tests, as well as those of Izhar et al. [2], had illustrated unquestionably the reagents’ matchless quality on unadulterated Aluminum surfaces. As a result, the utilize of 60% “HCl” taken after by 40% “NaOH” is getting to be a common approach for aluminum and related subsidiaries. The reason why this carving method can deliver made strides differentiate and affectability is however obscure. One plausibility can be due to the amphoteric properties of aluminum [2,35].

It happened also discovered into our aluminum composite surfaces that the reaction with the aforementioned reagent was abnormally flaming for small eradication depths. Within 2 minutes of use, the number shown on the plate was erased up to the etching depth, and further washing for a couple of minutes caused the markings to vanish. As a result, a more conspicuous command throughout the etching period is preferable. Surprisingly, it was the opposite with pure metal surfaces: This reagent's reaction was perceived as slower, less overpowering, and requiring more time (about 5 minutes) for the underlying emergence of the markings. Amid the tests, one vital discernment was that the number recovered in cases of abundance carving was or maybe fainter. In any occasion, the recouped markings were more particular when the devastated marks were fair engraved to a sensible profundity and not over-engraved. The previously mentioned result shows up to be comparative to that detailed by Azlan et al [3]. and Izhar et al. [2], who found that the profundity of the recuperation diminished after the first number was engraved and a afterward number was engraved in its stead. Concurring to researchers, they have examined the rebuilding of carved markings on high-strength aluminum combinations utilizing chemical carving methods. “H3PO4” by soaking and 60 percent “HCl” and 40 percent “NaOH” on substitution cleaning yielded the leading comes about and application of all chemicals for real-world cases. “H3PO4” displayed a considerably greater distinction of the etched marks than other chemical etching reagents. As a result, further work is anticipated to be done to fully use the potential of this reagent [36].

Mohd Farizon Abdul, et al in their examination An examination into the appropriateness of a few carving reagents for reestablishing devastated ventured numerals on cast press engine squares of cars found the reasonableness of up to eight metallographic etchants on cast press motor piece surfaces. It was illustrated that two reagents: (I) 45 g cupric chloride, 100 mL hydrochloric destructive, 180 mL “H2O” and (ii) 12.9 g “cupric chloride” 80 mL hydrochloric destructive, 60 mL “H2O” 50 mL ethanol had a discernible impact on the engraved engraves to shifting degrees, and the recuperations were shocking. The reagent (I) produced the greatest difference, and the impressions remained even after 1 hour of sketching on the engraved surface. The reagent similarly performed well on the genuine guides to disclose the etched unique motor numbers. Instead of etching, staining is recommended for displaying character or scratches caused by impact in the center. Basic testing revealed that the suggested reagent was effective in removing engraved flaws on low (0.1 percent C) and medium carbon (0.31 percent C) steel surfaces; however, additional research is needed to fully understand the reagent’s affectability on low and medium carbon steel surfaces [37].

Nalini, et al in their study on Unused Reclamation Reagent for Advancement of Deleted Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface, found that the work was completed to develop a synthetic carving reagent for the chronic number reclamation on copper metal plates, and the reagent has a few characteristics such as being less tedious and less poisonous. Around nine distinct reagents were prepared using various mix’s reagents nearby standard reagent, and it was applied to more than 50 ruined instances of copper afterward rebuilt. The present audit was completed in the Forensic Science section. Our findings demonstrated that nine distinct types of scratching reagents with varying synthesis’ reagents were arranged and utilized for the reclamation of Obliterated chronic numbers on the given examples (copper and metal plates with exceptional chronic number ventured from chronic number 1-50) by substance carving. Later analysis revealed that of the nine scratching reagents tested, etching reagent 3 (creation: Ferric chloride, dist. Water, ice acidic corrosive) produced the greatest results [38].

Maynard, et al. found in their ponder on the Potential utilize of fluid color penetrants for serial number rebuilding on weapons that the LDPs try seem not give any expansion to the ways of rebuilding or help within the enhancement of the serial number. The taking after reclamation utilizing Fry’s reagent was fruitful on a rate of the plates, in spite of the fact that the reclamation profundities were frequently shallow. Moving the plate was displayed to help in envisioning the reestablished devastated serial number. The arrange was to utilize LDPs, which are for the most part utilized as an examination instrument within the welding industry to distinguish surrenders and splits, as a one-step nondestructive method for recognizing carved serial numbers. On the off chance that effective, this would cruel that the treatment of destructive manufactured chemicals would not be required for serial number reclamation. The reclamation tests with LDPs were unsuccessful; future investigate will proceed to create valuable and non-hazardous methods and strategies for serial number reclamation; within the in the interim, Fry’s reagent appears to be the most excellent strategy [39].

Serial numbers are utilized as exceptionally recognizable proof imprints for a scope of things, yet these can be eradicated by wrongdoers associated with crimes like robbery or unlawful utilization of taken things, so the beginning and proprietorship can't be followed. These days numerous techniques are accessible to reestablish the eradicated sequential number. The Carving strategy is the foremost broadly recognized and which are advantageous methodology for the modifying of successive numbers on the metal surface. Diverse reagents of which the endless larger part of them are copper and iron-containing, less noxious, less perilous blends were picked for carving. The killed surfaces were carved with all of these etchants utilizing the cleaning method. Here the leading results were fulfilled with the utilization of Fry’s chemical reagents (ferric chloride 25 g, conc. Hydrochloric corrosive, refined 25 ml, 100 ml water). This review is significant because on the grounds that whether these proposed techniques work and provided that this is true to lead more examination to get the field of science and forensic acknowledged by mainstream researchers. This review will be valuable for analysts of firearms looking for new reagents and new techniques for restoration. There are current techniques instead of experts to utilize. Considering the requirement for strong, Given the meaning that restoration of the obliterated serial number for examiners of forensic science, this study intended to record the continuous undertakings for restoration on metal surfaces. The study recommends that the regular methods and the as of late applied chemical etching methods might in any case be improved since there are lots of unlearned things. Experimental works in the future would widen our insight assuming they analyze the effect of metal arrangement on totaling and demolition. In general, one might say that despite the finite amount of researches about the rebuilding of obliterated serial amounts on metal surfaces, confident results remain acquired along with direct more examinations both for forensic science and methodical closes.

  1. Uli N, Kuppuswamy R, Amran MFC (2011) A survey of some metallographic etching reagents for restoration of obliterated engraved marks on aluminium–silicon alloy surfaces. Forensic science international 208: 66-73.
  2. Baharum MIM, Kuppuswamy R, Rahman AA (2008) Recovering obliterated engraved marks on aluminium surfaces by etching technique. Forensic science international 177: 221-227.
  3. Zaili MAM, Kuppuswamy R, Harun H (2007) Restoration of engraved marks on steel surfaces by etching technique. Forensic science international 171: 27-32.
  4. Dong S, Liao Y, Tian Q (2005) Sensing of corrosion on aluminum surfaces by use of metallic optical fiber. Applied optics 44: 6334-6337.
  5. Kuppuswamy R, Senthilkumar M (2004) Restoration of vehicle identification numbers. Journal of forensic Identification 54: 13.
  6. Heard BJ (2011) Handbook of firearms and ballistics: examining and interpreting forensic evidence. John Wiley & Sons 1.
  7. Katterwe H (2006) Restoration of serial numbers. Forensic Investigation of Stolen-Recovered and Other Crime-Related Vehicles 177-205.
  8. Kuppuswamy R (2011) Metallographic etching of aluminium and its alloys for restoration of obliterated marks in forensic science practice and investigations. Aluminium Alloys Theory and Applications 58: 27.
  9. Treptow RS (1978) Handbook of methods for the restoration of obliterated serial numbers.
  10. Chaklos DL, Kuehner MN (2005) Firearm and Toolmark Identification. In Forensic Science and Law 361-384
  11. Nickolls LC (1956) The scientific investigation of crime. Butterworth.
  12. Turley DM (1987) Restoration of stamp marks on steel components by etching and magnetic techniques. Journal of Forensic Science 32: 640-649.
  13. Collins JM (1999) Modern marking and serial numbering methods. AFTE Journal 31: 309-317.
  14. Wightman G, Matthew J (2008) Restoration of stamp marks on steel components. Forensic science international 180: 32-36.
  15. Zaili MAM, Kuppuswamy R, Harun H (2007) Restoration of engraved marks on steel surfaces by etching technique. Forensic science international 171: 27-32.
  16. Thornton JI, Cashman PJ (1976) The mechanism of the restoration of obliterated serial numbers by acid etching. J Foren Sci Soc 16: 69-71.
  17. Katterwe H (2006) Restoration of serial numbers. Forensic Investigation of Stolen-Recovered and Other Crime-Related Vehicles 177-205.
  18. Yin SH, Kuppuswamy R (2009) On the sensitivity of some common metallographic reagents to restoring obliterated marks on medium carbon (0.31% C) steel surfaces. Forensic science international 183: 50-53.
  19. Houck MM (2015) Firearm and Toolmark Examination and Identification. Elsevier.
  20. Uysal S, Mercan M, Uzun L (2020) Serial number restoration on polymer surfaces: A survey of recent literature. Forensic Chemistry 20: 100267.
  21. Patil M (2019) Comparative Approach for Restoration of Obliterated Engraved Marks On Different Metal Surfaces. History Research Journal 5: 1238-1251.
  22. Kesharwani L, Gupta AK, Mishra MK (2013) Development of new reagent for restoration of erased serial number on metal plates. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 3: 26-34.
  23. Song Q (2015) Restoration of obliterated engraved marks on steel surfaces by chemical etching reagent. Forensic science international 250: 33-36.
  24. Fortini A, Merlin M, Soffritti C, Garagnani GL (2016) Restoration of obliterated numbers on 40NiCrMo4 steel by etching method: metallurgical and statistical approaches. J Foren Sci 61: 160-169.
  25. Natasha AF, Zakaria Y, Nik Hassan FN (2020) A Comparison of Restoration of Obliterated Markings on Aluminium Engine Block by Chemical Etching Techniques. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals 73: 1867-1878.
  26. Zaili MAM, Kuppuswamy R, Harun H (2007) Restoration of engraved marks on steel surfaces by etching technique. Forensic science international 171: 27-32.
  27. Yin SH, Kuppuswamy R (2009) On the sensitivity of some common metallographic reagents to restoring obliterated marks on medium carbon (0.31% C) steel surfaces. Forensic science international 183: 50-53.
  28. Bong YU, Kuppuswamy R (2010) Revealing obliterated engraved marks on high strength aluminium alloy (AA7010) surfaces by etching technique. Forensic Science International 195: 86-92.
  29. Vander Voort GF (1984) Metallography Principles and Practice McGraw Hill. Inc. New York NY.
  30. Katterwe H (2006) Restoration of serial numbers. Forensic Investigation of Stolen-Recovered and Other Crime-Related Vehicles 177-205.
  31. Kehl GL (1949) The principles of metallographic laboratory practice.
  32. Vander Voort GF (1984) Metallography Principles and Practice McGraw Hill. Inc. New York NY.
  33. Dong S, Liao Y, Tian Q (2005) Sensing of corrosion on aluminum surfaces by use of metallic optical fiber. Applied optics 44: 6334-6337.
  34. Peeler G, Gutowski S, Wrobel H, Dower G (2008) The restoration of impressed characters on aluminum alloy motorcycle frames. J Foren Ident 58: 27.
  35. Dong S, Liao Y, Tian Q (2005) Sensing of corrosion on aluminum surfaces by use of metallic optical fiber. Applied optics 44: 6334-6337.
  36. Bong YU, Kuppuswamy R (2010) Revealing obliterated engraved marks on high strength aluminium alloy (AA7010) surfaces by etching technique. Forensic Science International 195: 86-92.
  37. Wahab MFA, Ghani NIM, Kuppuswamy R (2012) An investigation into the suitability of some etching reagents to restoring obliterated stamped numbers on cast iron engine blocks of cars. Forensic science international 223: 53-63.
  38. Shankar N, Kesharwani L, Mishra M K, Chattree A, Kumar R, et al. (2014) New Restoration Reagent for Development of Erased Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface. Malaysian J. Forensic Sci.
  39. Maynard P, Skinner K, Bolton M, Moret S (2019) Potential application of liquid dye penetrants for serial number restoration on firearms. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 51: 674-684.
  40. Heard BJ (1997) Restoration of erased numbers. Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics: Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence Wiley and John & Sons New Jersey 213-221.